How Petroleum and Gas were made?
How Petroleum and Gas was discovers?
How Petroleum and Gas industries are run?
Petroleum and gas was formed from the remains of ancient marine organisms, such as plants, algae, and bacteria. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels.
Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels. Petroleum and gas are all fossil fuels that formed under similar conditions.
Today, petroleum and gas are found in vast underground reservoirs where ancient seas were located. Petroleum reservoirs can be found beneath land or the ocean floor. Their crude oil is extracted with giant drilling machines.
Crude oil color is usually black or dark brown, but can also be yellowish, reddish, tan, or even greenish. Variations in color indicate the distinct chemical compositions of different supplies of crude oil. Petroleum that has few metals or sulfur, for instance, like to be lighter (sometimes nearly clear).
Petroleum is used to make gasoline, an important product in our daily routine lives. It is also processed and part of thousands of different items, including tires, refrigerators, life jackets, and anesthetics.
When petroleum products such as gasoline are burned for energy, they release toxic gases and high amounts of carbon dioxide. Carbon helps regulate the earth’s atmospheric temperature, and adding to the natural balance by burning fossil fuels affects our climate.
There are huge quantities of petroleum and Gas found under earth’s surface. Petroleum and Gas even exists far below the deepest wells that are developed to extract it.
However, petroleum and Gas are a non-renewable source of energy. It took millions of years for it to form, and when it is extracted and consumed, there is no way for us to replace it.
Petroleum and Gas supplies will run out one day. Eventually, the world will reach “peak oil,” or its highest production level. Some experts predict peak oil could come as soon as 2050. Finding alternatives to petroleum is crucial to global energy use, because of that, the focus of many industries.
Today, oil is an international, multi-million dollar industry, but where, when and how did the industry begin? Offshore Technology explores the history of oil, from the first discoveries to present-day businesses.
Oil and gas had already been used in minimum capacity, such as in lamps or as a material for construction, for thousands of years before the modern era. Earliest known oil wells being drilled in China in 347 AD.
The modern history of the oil and gas industry started in 1847. When a discovery made by Scottish chemist James Young. He observed natural petroleum seepage in the Ridding’s coal mine, and from this seepage distilled both a light thin oil suitable for lamps and a thicker oil suitable for lubrication.
Following these successful distillations, James Young experimented further with coal and was able to distil a number of liquids including an early form of petroleum. James Young patented these oils and paraffin wax, also distilled from coal, in 1850. And later that year formed a partnership with geologist Edward William. The partners formed the first truly commercial oil refinery and oil-works in the world, manufacturing oil and paraffin wax from locally mined coal.
Young wasn’t the only scientist making discoveries about coal in the 19th century. In 1846, Canadian geologist Abraham Pineo Gesner refined a liquid from coal, oil shale and bitumen that was cheaper and burned more cleanly than other oils. He dubbed this liquid ‘kerosene’ and founded the kerosene gaslight company in 1850, using the oil to light the streets of Halifax and later the US.
From these initial discoveries, new businesses were created, with the coal industry.
Polish engineer Ignace Lukasiewicz improved Gesner’s method to more easily distil kerosene and petroleum in 1852, opening the first ‘rock oil’ mine in Poland in 1854.
The first oil well drilled was in the town of La Brea, Trinidad in 1857. It was drilled to a depth of 280 feet by the American Merrimac Company.
The first modern oil well in America was drilled by Edwin Drake in Pennsylvania in 1859. The discovery of petroleum in Titusville led to the Pennsylvania ‘oil rush’, making oil one of the most valuable commodities in America.
The late 18th century and the early 19th century marked the creation of major oil companies that still dominate the oil industry today.
The 1980s saw a significant glut in oil following the 1970 energy crisis. Petroleum production peaked in the 1970s, which caused a sharp rise in oil price and a subsequent decrease in demand.
Oil-producing countries suffered during this glut, with OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) struggling to maintain high oil prices through decreasing oil production. The dissolution of the Soviet Union can also be attributed in part to a loss of influence as an oil producer.
The glut lasted six years, but a similar surplus in oil started in 2014 and continues to have effects on global oil prices.
The oil industry is still thriving today despite competition from renewable sources of energy.
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