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First Six Major Mughal Emperors of Sub-Continent

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First Six Mughal Empire of Sub-Continent | India

The first six Mughal empire of the Mughal dynasty – Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb — changed the face of India with their political and intellectual prowess. Here are the main facts on the first six Mughal emperors in Indian history.

1.Babur (AD 1526-1530) 

The very first Mughal emperor and the founder of the first six Mughal empire Babur brought gunpowder to India.

His actual name was Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur. His name is derived from the Persian word ‘Babr’, which means Tiger. 

Babur, the founder of the largest dynasty India has ever seen– the Mughals, was born on February 14, 1483. 

 He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, a direct descendant of Turk-Mongol conqueror Timur, also known as Tamurlane. His mother was a direct descendant of Asia’s conqueror Genghis Khan.

  • He is known for defeating:
  • Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat (AD 1526)
  • Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) at battle of Khanwa
  • Medini Rai of Chenderi at Battle of Chanderi (AD 1528)
  • Mahmud Lodi at Battle of Ghagra (AD 1529)
  • Babur died in 1530 and was buried at Aram Bagh (Agra). Late, his body was taken to Bagh-e-Babur (Kabul)

2. Humayun (AD 1530-1556)

Babur’s son, Humayun, built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second capital.

Humāyūn, also called ir al-Dīn Muammad, born March 6, 1508, Kabul Afghanistan.

second Mughal ruler of India, who was more an adventurer than a consolidator of his empire.

Humayun-nama was written by his half-sister Gulbadan Begum.

Humayun died in AD 1556 falling from the stairs of his library building.

3. Akbar (AD 1556-1605)

Akbar was born as Abu’l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar on October 15, 1542.

Akbar the Great died more than 411 years ago. you know that he was only 13 when he ascended the throne after his father, Humayun’s death.

He spent his youth learning to hunt, run, and fight, which made him a daring, powerful and a brave warrior.

The third Mughal emperor introduced a land revenue system called Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti system, through his finance minister Raja Todar Mal, wherein the classification of land and fixation of rent was introduced.

The Navratnas of the nine famous intellectuals of Akbar’s court were Todar Mal, Abul Fazal, Faizi, Birbal, Tansen, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khana, Mullah-do-Pyaza, Raja Man Singh, and Fakir Aziao-Din.

Akbar conquered:

  • Malwa (AD 1561) after defeating Baz Bahadur followed by Garh-Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati)
  • Chittor (AD 1568)
  • Ranthambore and Kalinjar (AD 1569)
  • Gujarat (AD 1672)
  • Mewar (AD 1576) in the Battle of Haldighati after defeating Rana Pratap
  • Kashmir (AD 1586)
  • Sindh (AD 1593)
  • Asirgarh (AD 1603)

Akbar fell ill on October 3, 1605, with an attack of dysentery. He is believed to have died on October 27, 1605.

4. Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)

Also known as Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim, he was known as the patron of arts. Jahangir was said to be a just ruler, one who personally paid heed to the grievances of his people.

The fourth Mughal ruler, Jahangir, was succeeded by the famous Akbar the Great. Jahangir was known for his ambivalent stance on religion and his love for art. Like most Mughal rulers, Jahangir has given India few of the most iconic structures that have lasted the centuries without losing their glory.

Jahangir was the eldest son of Akbar and was trained by the best of teachers in his kingdom. Like most Mughal rulers, Jahangir has given India few of the most iconic structures that have lasted the centuries without losing their glory.

His greatest political failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in AD 1622.

The fourth Mughal emperor Mehr-un-Nisa in AD 1611 and conferred the titles of Nur Jahan on her.

Jahangir died in Kashmir in the month of October 1627, he was soon succeeded by Shah Jahan, who claimed the throne in 1628.

5. Shah Jahan (AD 1628-1658)

Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan, also known as Shah Jahan, was born on January 5, 1592. He is famously known for the Taj Mahal construction, which took nearly 20 years to complete, with the help of a total of nearly 20,000 workers and 1,000 elephants. Shah Jahan was born as Khurram.

His fourth wife, Mumtaz Mahal, was married to another man who was killed by Shah Jahan so that he could marry her.

India was the richest center of arts, crafts, and architecture under his rule. It is also believed that at that time, the Mughal empire had the highest GDP in the world.

 His other constructions include Red Fort, large sections of Agra Fort, Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, Moti Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore Fort, and the Jahangir mausoleum.

Apart from the Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan also built the Moti Mahal in Agra, and the Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi.

Shah Jahan’s reign is considered the Golden Age of the Mughal empire.

6. Aurangzeb (Alamgir) (AD 1658-1707)

Aurangzeb was born as Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb and is commonly known as Aurangzeb Alamgir.

Aurangzeb was one of the boldest Mughal emperors and during his reign, India was one of the richest nations in the world.

His win over an elephant that had attacked him, got him much respect among his family members and the Mughal court. The win also got him the title ‘Bahadur’. He was born on November 3, 1618.

He was called Darvesh or a Zinda Pir.

Just after a year of that fight, Aurangzeb was given his first command, comprising 10,000 horses and 4,000 troopers.

The Mughal empire conquests reached a climax during his rule. Aurangzeb’s empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.

The Mughal empire conquests reached a climax during his rule. Aurangzeb’s empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.

The first first six Mughal empire conquests reached a climax during his rule. Aurangzeb’s empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east

The Mughal empire conquests reached a climax during his rule. Aurangzeb’s empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.

At the age of 18, Aurangzeb became viceroy of the Deccan.

The first prominent execution during his reign was that of his brother, Dara Shikoh.

The first six Mughal empire conquests reached a climax during his rule. Aurangzeb’s empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east

Aurangzeb built Bibi ka Maqbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani at Aurangabad, Moti Mahal within Red Fort at Delhi, and the Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.

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